Decision-makers have been shown to rely on probabilistic models for perception and action. However, these models can be incorrect or partially wrong in which case the decision-maker has to cope with model uncertainty. Model uncertainty has recently also been shown to be an important determinant of sensorimotor behaviour in humans that can lead to risk-sensitive deviations from Bayes optimal behaviour towards worst-case or best-case outcomes. Here, we investigate the effect of model uncertainty on cooperation in sensorimotor interactions similar to the stag-hunt game, where players develop models about the other player and decide between a pay-off-dominant cooperative solution and a risk-dominant, non-cooperative solution. In simulations, we show that players who allow for optimistic deviations from their opponent model are much more likely to converge to cooperative outcomes. We also implemented this agent model in a virtual reality environment, and let human subjects play against a virtual player. In this game, subjects' pay-offs were experienced as forces opposing their movements. During the experiment, we manipulated the risk sensitivity of the computer player and observed human responses.We found not only that humans adaptively changed their level of cooperation depending on the risk sensitivity of the computer player but also that their initial play exhibited characteristic risksensitive biases. Our results suggest that model uncertainty is an important determinant of cooperation in two-player sensorimotor interactions. © 2013 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.
The effect of model uncertainty on cooperation in sensorimotor interactions
The Royal Society,, London , Regno Unito
Journal of the Royal Society interface (Print) 10 (2013). doi:10.1098/rsif.2013.0554
info:cnr-pdr/source/autori:Grau-Moya, Jordi; Hez, E.; Pezzulo, Giovanni; Braun, Daniel Alexander/titolo:The effect of model uncertainty on cooperation in sensorimotor interactions/doi:10.1098/rsif.2013.0554/rivista:Journal of the Royal Society interface (