In this paper, we pose the following working hypothesis: in humans, transcranial electric stimulation (tES) with a time course that mimics the endogenous activity of its target is capable of altering the target's excitability. In our case, the target was the primary motor cortex (M1). We identified the endogenous neurodynamics of hand M1's subgroups of pyramidal neuronal pools in each of our subjects by applying Functional Source Separation (FSS) to their EEG recordings. We then tested whether the corticospinal excitability of the hand representation under the above described stimulation, which we named transcranial individual neurodynamics stimulation (tIDS), was higher than in the absence of stimulation (baseline). As a check, we compared tIDS with the most efficient noninvasive facilitatory corticospinal tES known so far, which is 20 Hz transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS). The control conditions were as follows: (1) sham, (2) transcranial random noise stimulation (tRNS) in the same frequency range as tIDS (1-250 Hz), and (3) a low current tIDS (tIDS(low)). Corticospinal excitability was measured with motor-evoked potentials under transcranial magnetic stimulation. The mean motor-evoked potential amplitude increase was 31% of the baseline during tIDS (p < 0.001), and it was 15% during tACS (p = 0.096). tRNS, tIDS(low), and sham induced no effects. Whereas tACS did not produce an enhancement in any subject at the individual level, tIDS was successful in producing an enhancement in 8 of the 16 subjects. The results of the present proof-of-principle study showed that proper exploitation of local neurodynamics can enhance the efficacy of personalized tES.
A New, High-Efficacy, Noninvasive Transcranial Electric Stimulation Tuned to Local Neurodynamics
The Society,, [Baltimore, MD , Stati Uniti d'America
The Journal of neuroscience 38 (2018): 586–594. doi:10.1523/JNEUROSCI.2521-16.2017
info:cnr-pdr/source/autori:Cottone, Carlo; Cancelli, Andrea; Pasqualetti, Patrizio; Porcaro, Camillo; Salustri, Carlo; Tecchio, Franca/titolo:A New, High-Efficacy, Noninvasive Transcranial Electric Stimulation Tuned to Local Neurodynamics/doi:10.1523/JNEU