Wild bearded capuchins (Cebus libidinosus, quadrupedal, medium-sized monkeys) crack nuts using large stones. We examined the kinematics and energetics of the nut-cracking action of two adult males and two adult females. From a bipedal stance, the monkeys raised a heavy hammer stone (1.46 kg and 1.32 kg, from 33% to 77% of their body weight) to an average height of 0.33 meters, 60% of body length. They then rapidly lowered the stone by flexing the lower extremities and the trunk until the stone contacted the nut. A hit consisting of an upward phase and a downward phase averaged 0.74 seconds in duration. The upward phase lasted 69% of hit duration. The two males added discernable energy to the stone in the downward phase. The monkeys exhibited individualized kinematic strategies, similar to those of human weight-lifters. Capuchins illustrate that human-like bipedal stance and large body size are unnecessary to break tough objects from a bipedal position. The phenomenon of bipedal nut-cracking by capuchins provides a new comparative reference point for discussions of percussive tool use and bipedality in primates.
Kinematics and energetics of nut-cracking in wild capuchin monekys (Cebus libidinosus) in Piauí, Brazil.
A.R. Liss,, New York , Stati Uniti d'America
American journal of primatology (Print) 138 (2009): 210–220.
info:cnr-pdr/source/autori:Liu, Q., Simpson, K., Izar, P., Ottoni, E., Visalberghi, E., & Fragaszy, D./titolo:Kinematics and energetics of nut-cracking in wild capuchin monekys (Cebus libidinosus) in Piauí, Brazil./doi:/rivista:American journal of primato